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What Is Software Testing? All the Basics You Need to Know

To err is human. No matter how much of a perfectionist you are, we’re all bound to make mistakes. Every…

Software Testing Basics
By Testim,

To err is human. No matter how much of a perfectionist you are, we’re all bound to make mistakes. Every organization has an end goal that comes with its own set of expectations. For some businesses, success is indicated by a high frequency of real outcomes matching expected results. But before reaching their end goal, every firm has to face the consequences of human errors.

No enterprise can use manual error as an excuse for delivering a compromised product. To ensure a high-quality product, there has to be something in place to pick out errors. Software testing is an essential solution to this problem for software development companies. In this post, I’m going to cover some software testing basics that you need to know.

What Is Software Testing?

Software testing is the process of finding errors in the developed product. It also checks whether the real outcomes can match expected results, as well as aids in the identification of defects, missing requirements, or gaps.

Testing is the penultimate step before the launch of the product to the market. It includes examination, analysis, observation, and evaluation of different aspects of a product.

Professional software testers use a combination of manual testing with automated tools. After conducting tests, the testers report the results to the development team. The end goal is to deliver a quality product to the customer, which is why software testing is so important.

Importance of Software Testing

It’s common for many startups to skip testing. They might say that their budget is the reason why they overlook such an important step. But to make a strong and positive first impression, testing a product for bugs is a must.

Similarly, established organizations need to maintain their client base. So they have to ensure the delivery of flawless products to the end-user. Let’s take a look at some points and see why software testing is vital to good software development.

Test Automation Enhances Product Quality

An enterprise can only bring value to the customer only when the product delivered is ideal. And to achieve that, an organization focuses on testing applications and fixes the bugs that testing reveals before releasing the product. When the team resolves issues before the product reaches the customer, the quality of the deliverable increases.

Test Automation Improves Security

When customers use the software, they are bound to reveal some sort of personal information. To prevent hackers from getting hold of this data, security testing is a must before the software is released. When an organization follows a proper testing process, it ensures a secure product that in turn makes customers feel safe while using the product. For instance, banking applications or e-commerce stores need payment information. If the developers don’t fix security-related bugs, it can cause massive financial loss.

Test Automation Detects Compatibility With Different Devices and Platforms

The days are gone when customers worked exclusively on hefty desktop models. In the mobile-first age, testing a product’s device compatibility is a must. For instance, let’s say your organization developed a website. The tester must check whether the website runs on different device resolutions. Additionally, it should also run on different browsers.

Another reason why testing is gaining more importance is ever-increasing browser options. What works fine on Chrome may not run well on Safari or Internet Explorer. This gives rise to the need for cross-browser testing, which includes checking the compatibility of the application on different browsers.

Types of Software Testing

According to the nature and scope of an application, there are different types of software testing. This is because not all testing procedures suit all products. And every type has its pros and cons. There are two basic types of testing: functional and non-functional.

Functional Testing

Functional testing verifies each function of an application or software. The tester verifies functionality with a specified set of requirements. So the source code of a software or an application doesn’t play a major role in this case. Black box testing—that is, testing the behavior of the software—is the main concern.

The different types of functional testing include:

  • Unit testing. In unit testing, the tester checks individual software components. The aim is to test whether the components behave according to the requirements.
  • Integration testing. Integration testing deals with testing individual components or modules after they are combined in a group.
  • System testing. Here, the tester executes test cases for verifying the compliance of integrated and completed software along with specifications.
  • Sanity testing. This tests logical reasoning related to the working of the program.
  • Smoke testing. Smoke testing tests simple and basic functionalities, such as if the user is able to log in or log out.
  • Interface testing. These tests check whether the communication between two software systems is correctly carried out.
  • Regression testing. This is probably one of the most important testing phases. Here, the old test cases of the entire application are executed after a new functionality has been implemented.
  • Beta/acceptance testing. Here, the intended users try the product and report bugs.

Non-Functional Testing

Non-functional testing considers parameters such as reliability, usability, and performance. A non-functional test might be checking how many users can log in to the system at the same time.

Non-functional testing types include:

  • Performance testing. The performance or speed of the application is tested under the required workload.
  • Load testing. This tests an application’s behavior under a huge workload. So, if you’re testing a website, load testing checks the site’s functionality and performance under high traffic.
  • Stress testing. Stress testing determines software robustness by assessing whether it’s working beyond regular operation.
  • Volume testing. This tests the performance of the system by loading the database to an increased volume of data.
  • Security testing. Here, test cases are executed to check whether the system is safeguarded against sudden or deliberate attacks from internal and external sources.
  • Compatibility testing. Test cases are executed to check whether the application is compatible with varying environments. For example, if you’re testing a web application, compatibility testing deals with how the website works on different browsers or devices.
  • Install testing. These tests check if a product works according to expectations after installation.
  • Recovery testing. Here, testers determine an application’s capacity to recover from hardware crashes and failures.
  • Reliability testing. This procedure checks where an application can perform a particular task without failure within a specific timeframe. For example, suppose you’re testing a cryptocurrency mining application. The scenario where the application can mine continuously for eight hours without crashing might be something you look for during reliability testing.
  • Usability testing. Usability testing explores the end-user’s ease of use in terms of learning, operating, and preparing inputs and outputs.
  • Compliance testing. This determines the system’s compliance with external and internal standards.
  • Localization testing. Here, testers check the behavior of a product according to local or cultural settings and environment.

Two Ways to Test

As we know, in the current age of the machines, everything that involves manual effort is slowly automated. And the same thing is happening in the testing domain. There are two different ways of performing software testing—manual and automation.

Manual labor in any field requires a lot of time and effort. Manual testing is a process in which testers examine different features of an application. Here, the tester performs the process without using any tools or test scripts. Without using any automated tools, testers perform execution of different test cases. Finally, they generate a test report.

Quality assurance analysts test the software under development for bugs. They do so by writing scenarios in an excel file or QA tool and testing each scenario manually.

But in automated testing, testers use scripts for testing (thus automating the process). The pre-scripted tests run automatically to compare actual and expected outcomes. With test automation, when constant human intervention is not necessary, things like regression testing and execution of repetitive tasks don’t seem like much effort.

Is Automated Testing Making Manual Testing Obsolete?

Now that you’ve got the gist of what manual and automated testing are, we need to clarify an important question.

Is automation testing making manual testing obsolete? No.

Even though the automatic performance of most processes takes place in automation testing, some manual labor is still a must. Generating the initial script for testing requires human efforts. Also, in any automated process, human supervision is mandatory. Automation simply makes the testing process easier. However, it doesn’t make manual testing obsolete. You only get the best result by combining both manual and automated tests.

Why Is There Such a Huge Demand for Test Automation?

Since testing is more efficient and speedy, there’s a huge demand for automation testing compared to manual testing. And the reason is that it helps find more bugs in less time. By checking every single unit, automated testing also increases test coverage. As a result, an organization’s productivity increases

Testing Is Software’s Lifeline

No company can underestimate the importance of delivering the best possible product to customers. And the types of testing keep evolving and the list keeps going on. Depending on the nature and scope of your products, you can run different testing procedures.

Once the testing team gives the green signal, the deliverable is ready to go out into the market. But enterprises still need to keep in mind that customer trust doesn’t come easily. To help earn customer trust, you need to provide consistent, reliable products. That’s why testing is an integral part of the software development life cycle.

 This post was written by Arnab Roy Chowdhury. Arnab is a UI developer by profession and a blogging enthusiast. He has strong expertise in the latest UI/UX trends, project methodologies, testing, and scripting.

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